The Systems of Indian Philosophy Author - Shri V. R. Gandhi Edited By - Dr. K. K. Dixit
SOMETHING ABOUT LATE SHRI V. R. GANDHI `The Systems of Indian Philosophy' is published here for the first time. It contains lectures which late V. R. Gandhi delivered before American audience of the common people, while he was on his journey to attend the World Congress of Religions held for the first time in the United States of American in 1893 A.D... The third thing which is noteworthy is his association with Mahatma Gandhiji.
The manuscript of the work, written in the author's own handwriting, remained unknown for very long. And fortunately it was discovered just in his centenary year. It is really a matter of happy co-incidence that Dr. K. K. Dixit, who himself is a sincere student of Indian and Western philosophy as well as a proficient scholar of ancient Indian language-Sanskrit, Prakrit, Pali, etc., has carefully edited the present work. It is an outstanding characteristic of Dr. Dixit that whatever he writes, he writes after mature consideration, without any partiality or exaggeration.
Dr. Dixit has written an elaborate introduction to this work. Any sensible enquirer, who sincerely tries to understand 0it, will find no difficulty in properly evaluating these lectures. When I think on this line I feel that there remains nothing particular for me to write. But because I hold Gandhi in high esteem and because I have good faith in Shri Mahavira Jaina Vidyalaya, the Institute which publishes the present work, I am inspired to say few words...
We know that according to Gautama's theory there is nothing permanent in man, that every particle mental, spiritual or physical, perishes every moment and new aggregates come into existence by reason of the influence left by teh 9 ) or action of the former aggregates. Everything is momentary, and if a man leads a perfectly holy life he would not collect new ( ) which will lead him into new hbirth; and therefore the aggregates of which he is composed come to an end without the new aggregates coming into existence. So although Gautama might not have said in so many words that the future state after ( ) is a state of annihilation, still the natural conclusion is that the state must be that of total annihilation. In an article in the Lucifer of march 1874, Mr. G. R. Meads tries to save buddhism from the charge of propounding a theory of annihilation and quotes a passage by Col. Olcott sanctioned by the High Priest of Ceylon. he says that although soul according to Buddhism is impermanent and changeable, still there is in man the permanent part called spirit. He says, "Buddhism does not deny the imperishable nature of an ultimate spiritual reality in man, of a ture transcendental subject, of an immortal changeless self." Now this self or transcendental subject has been know in all Indian philosophy by the name of ( ) or ( ). With reference to Brahma, Gautama Has distinctly said in Tevijjia Sutta that the talk of the Brahmins about that Brahma is foolish talk and that there existed no such state as Braham. With reference to ( ), I have already quoted Gautama as saying that it is heresy to to say that there is any such thing as ( ). Soul and spirit, ( ) and Brahma, are all identical in Indian philosophies and an attempt to put into the mouth of Gautama views which he never maintained is fruitless attempt.